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批:第二十四届韩素音青年翻译奖比赛英译汉参考译文

It’s Time to Rethink ‘Temporary’
恰逢其时:对“临时性”的再考量

We tend to view architecture as permanent, as aspiring to the status of monuments. And that kind of architecture has its place. But so does architecture of a different sort.

我们往往会认为建筑物就该是永久性的,甚至生机到达与纪念碑等量齐观的位置。此类建筑诚然占领一席之地,但另一类建筑同样有其存在的价值。


For most of the first decade of the 2000s, architecture was about the statement building. Whether it was a controversial memorial or an impossibly luxurious condo tower, architecture’s raison d’être was to make a lasting impression. Architecture has always been synonymous with permanence, but should it be?
在21世纪头十年的大局部时光里,建筑艺术就是要使建筑物起到某种明示作用。无论是颇具争议的留念碑,仍是豪华水平令人难以设想的公寓大厦,建筑存在的理由就是要给人留下难以磨灭的印象让人铭刻。建筑素来就是“永恒性”的同义词,然而,它果然应该是如此吗?



In the last few years, the opposite may be true. Architectural billings are at an all-time low. Major commissions are few and far between. The architecture that’s been making news is fast and fleeting: pop-up shops, food carts, marketplaces, performance spaces. And while many manifestations of the genre have jumped the shark (i.e., a Toys R Us pop-up shop), there is undeniable opportunity in the temporary: it is an apt response to a civilization in flux. And like many prevailing trends - collaborative consumption (a.k.a., “sharing”), community gardens, barter and trade - “temporary” is so retro that it’s become radical.
在过去的几年中,实际情形也许恰好相反。建筑业的经济效益可以说是空气的不景气,承当大型建筑项目的机会寥寥无几,而那些备受媒体注视的建筑也是来去促,像游击商店、食品车、市场集市、上演场地等。虽然许多此类风格的建筑早已成明日黄花(如玩具“反”斗游击店),但临时性建筑的机会是不可否认的:这是对日新月异的文明现象的恰当回应。就犹如配合花费(或“分享制”)、社区田园、易物交易等许多风行的做法那样,“临时性”建筑如此趋于回归,俨然非同一般,令人刮目相看。
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1、将architectural billings译为“建筑业的经济效益”并不准确。建筑业按照普通的理解指的是施工建造的行业,英文为construction (industry),而architectural所指通常跟建筑设计有关。Billing的词义并不像“经济效益”那么暧昧,它是指(建筑设计行业)开出的账单总和,即营业收入。所以,architectural billings are at an all-time low指的是建筑设计行业的收入或者说订单空前的少,换句话说,建筑师的活儿(work on the boards)少了。或者有人会说,建筑设计行业的收入减少了,做作建筑业也就不景气了。这个说法不准确:前者是后者的先行指标,两者相干但不雷同。其实,网上搜寻一下,就可以发明,美国建筑师学会每月会宣布一次依据会员单位提交的数据制订出来的The Architecture Billings Index, 弄明白这个index是怎么来的,也就弄清楚了architectural billings的准确含意。

从以下的《评析》来看,好像译审者对billing的理解有些含糊不清。


附:译审者对这句译文的评析
Architectural billings are at an all-time low.
译文:建筑业的经济效益能够说是空前的不景气。
正确地说,billings 是指建筑工程的投资跟回报额,或建筑业的经济效益。建筑作为一个行业(business),时下并不景气,并不挣钱。(They are not able to send “bills”- or invoices to demand payment - to many customers.)换句话说,因为经济起因,主要的城市建筑项目投资很少。

2、 原文:Major commissions are far and few between. 这句话是对上一句话的弥补解释,天然这里的major commissions指的就是“大型建筑设计项目”,而不是“大型建筑项目”。事实上,如果是大型建筑项目,这里可能会用contracts,金沙官方赌场, 而不是commissions.

3、“社区田园”改为“社区农园”可能更合适一点,因为正常的community garden大略不会有“田园”那么大。

4、译文:临时性建筑的机会是不可否认的。Undeniable并不见得都要理解或翻译成“不可否定”。Collins English Dictionary Complete and Unabridged在undeniable的词条下有三个义项1. unquestionably or obviously true 2. of unquestionable excellence a man of undeniable character 3. unable to be resisted or denied
这里或可译为:常设性建造面临绝佳的机遇。

5、译文:这是对一日千里的文化景象的恰当回应;原文:it is an apt response to a civilization in flux。当civilization做可数名词时,指的是a particular society at a particular time and place,所以a civilization in flux似应译为“一个一直变化的社会”。

6、原文:“Temporary” is so retro that it’s become radical;译文:“临时性”建筑如斯趋于回归,俨然非统一般,令人另眼相看。 《评析》对此句的理解不什么问题,但译文则显得有点?嗦甚至含混不清。实在这句话可简单地舆解为“复旧弥新”,或可译为:暂时性建筑如此复古而愈显前卫推翻。
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In November, I had the pleasure of moderating Motopia, a panel at University of Southern California’s School of Architecture, with Robert Kronenburg, an architect, professor at University of Liverpool and portable/temporary/mobile guru. Author of a shelf full of books on the topic, including “Flexible: Architecture that Responds to Change,” “Portable Architecture: Design and Technology” and “Houses in Motion: The Genesis,” Kronenburg is a man obsessed.
我有幸在11月份同罗伯特?克罗能伯格(Robert Kronenburg)一道主持了南加州大学建筑学院的“移动乌托邦”小型研究会。克罗能伯格是一名建筑师,利物浦大学的教学,是研讨便携式、临时性、移动型建筑的威望人士。他在该范畴著述等身,其中有《变通性:应答变更的建筑作风》,《便携式建筑:设计与技术》,《移动房屋的来源》,堪称浸淫其中。

Mobility has an innate potency, Kronenburg believes. Movable environments are more dynamic than static ones, so why should architecture be so static? The idea that perhaps all buildings shouldn’t aspire to permanence represents a huge shift for architecture. Without that burden, architects, designers, builders and developers can take advantage of and implement current technologies faster. Architecture could be reusable, recyclable and sustainable. Recast in this way, it could better solve seemingly unsolvable problems. And still succeed in creating a sense of place.
克罗能伯格认为,可移动性有一种内在的生发力。既然可移动的环境要比静止的更拥有活力,为什么建筑物就非得静止不动呢?或许并非所有的建筑物都应追求永恒,这一观点标志着建筑设计的宏大改变。解脱了传统的束缚,建筑师、设计师、建造者和开发商就能更快天时用当前新技术之长,并付诸实施。建筑是可再利用,可轮回,可持续的。以此方式重新定位和着手,一些看似解决不了的问题就可能迎刃而解,这样的建筑物仍能给人们带来身临实地的感觉
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1.固然sense of place还没有商定俗成的译法,但译为“身临实地的感到”显然分歧适。所谓“身临实地的感觉”是针对没有到过实地的人而言;对于已经身处该建筑的人来讲,无论是临时性建筑还是永远性建筑,原来就是身临实地,而非仅限于一种感觉。 这里可斟酌译为已经有一定接收度的“场所感”。
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In his presentation, Kronenburg offered examples of how portable, temporary architecture has been used in every aspect of human activity, including health care (from Florence Nightingale’s redesigned hospitals to the Airstream trailers used as mobile medical clinics during the Kennedy Administration), housing (from yurts to tents to architect Shigeru Ban’s post-earthquake paper houses), culture and commerce (stage sets and Great Exhibition buildings, centuries-old Bouqinistes along the Seine, mobile food, art and music venues offering everything from the recording of stories to tasty crème brulees.)
克罗能伯格发言时举例阐明了便携式、临时性的建筑早已应用于人类运动的各个方面,包含医疗(从弗罗伦斯?南丁格尔重新设计的病院到肯尼迪执政期间被用作流动医疗诊所的“清风”拖挂房车等)、住房(从蒙古包到帐篷,再到建筑师坂茂设计的震后纸板房),还有文明与商业(如各种舞台布景、万国产业展览会的各种建筑、塞纳河畔的那些百年流动旧书摊、移动餐饮店、艺术与音乐场所,这些场所提供各种商品,从录音故事到可口的焦糖奶油布丁,一应俱全)。
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1.paper houses译为“纸板房”有点想当然。了解一下板茂的设计就可以晓得,其实那是用“纸管”(paper tube)造出来的屋子。假如勤得懂得这些背景,最少译成“纸制房”保险些。当然,如果你进一步了解的话,纸管是在工厂里用纸板卷出来的,从这个意思上来讲,“纸板房”也能说得从前。

2.原文中的mobile food, art and music venues等同于mobile food venues, mobile art venues and mobile music venues,译文“移动餐饮店、艺术与音乐场所”容易让读者感到“移动”一词只管到“餐饮店”为止,所以这里宜译为“移动的餐饮、艺术和音乐场所”。
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Kronenburg made a compelling argument that the experimentation inherent in such structures challenges preconceived notions about what buildings can and should be. The strategy of temporality, he explained, “adapts to unpredictable demands, provides more for less, and encourages innovation.” And he stressed that it’s time for end-users, designers, architects, manufacturers and construction firms to rethink their attitude toward temporary, portable and mobile architecture.
克罗能伯格认为,以上这些带有实验性的建筑结构,挑衅了对于建筑物可以是什么、应当是什么等一些先入为主的观点,这种说法令人折服。他说明说,“临时性”作为一种策略,“不仅适应了人们不可猜测的需要,而且经济实惠,并激励翻新。”他还强调,建筑物的用户、设计师、建筑师、制作商和建筑公司该从新审阅对临时性、便捷式和可挪动建筑的立场了
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1. “made a compelling argument”是指有压服力地阐述、论证了其提出的观点,译文没能充分反映出这个意思来。

2.原文:the experimentation inherent in such structures;译文: 以上这些带有实验性的修筑结构。这样的译法机动却未能忠诚地反应原文。倡议译为:此类构造所固有的试验性/摸索。

3.“先入为主”是preconceived的广泛译法,但个人认为,preconceived与“先入为主”并错误等。这里的preconceived notions或可译为“偏见”。
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This is as true for development and city planning as it is for architecture. City-making may have happened all at once at the desks of master planners like Daniel Burnham or Robert Moses, but that’s really not the way things happen today. No single master plan can anticipate the evolving and varied needs of an increasingly diverse population or achieve the resiliency, responsiveness and flexibility that shorter-term, experimental endeavors can. Which is not to say long-term planning doesn’t have its place. The two work well hand in hand. Mike Lydon, founding principal of The Street Plans Collaborative, argues for injecting spontaneity into urban development, and sees these temporary interventions (what he calls “tactical urbanism”) as short-term actions to effect long-term change.
建筑尚且如此,开发与城市规划也是同样道理。城市的建造蓝图可能曾由丹尼尔?伯纳姆或罗伯特?摩西这样的总体规划师们在办公桌上一鼓作气,但如今的情况已全然不同。当今的人口构成越来越多样化,需求也不断变化,没有一个总体规划既可预测种种不同的需求,同时做到熟能生巧、更具应对力和灵活性,但尝试短期的和实验性建筑项目却可以做到这一点。这并不是说长期规划没有立足之地,两者是相辅相成的。街道规划协会的开创人迈克?莱登主张将自发性元素融入城市开发中,认为这些临时性介入(他称之“应变性城市主义”)虽然是短期行动,却足以引起久远变化。
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1.“建筑尚且如此”象征着后面的“开发与城市计划”更应该如此,但原文并没有这层意思,译文的后半句也没有承接这样的语气(“尚且”应该与“何况”之类的搭配,而不是“也是”)。译文中的“尚且”当属用词不当。

2.“立足之地”不如“没有作用/没有价值”来得恰当。

3.封教授在《评析》一文讲道:“有不少参赛者反映……选文比较难。客观上说,那些全新的名词概念、专业术语和英文名称在必定程度上进步了翻译的难度,但这是译者必需面对的。本次……不刻意回避信息比拟密集的原文。”随后,封传授对几个词语的翻译做了颇为详尽的论述,但令自己不解的是,对原文的要害词(tactical) urbanism的译法却只字未提。是不值一提呢,还是“刻意躲避”?如果说不值一提,是否跟urbanism这个词的形成有关,认为凡是-ism均可译为“主义”,所以urbansim译为“城市主义”也就不问可知?

事实上,英文中有不少以ism为结尾的词语并不宜译为“主义”,如baptism, plagiarism, criticismdespotism,其后缀表现的是行为、状况或特点,而urbanism的后缀偏偏属于这一类,因而,将urbanism译为“城市主义”是不妥的。

各类词典对urbanism的解释都大同小异,我就不反复了。联合本文的语境,这里的urbanism大体可以理解为”city-making”,这个city-making须要在了解urbanism的内涵的条件下来理解。关于urbanism的内涵,大家可以参考:

1.

2.

3.

4.

最后两个链接是文中提到的The Street Plans Collaborative发布的举动指引。从这两本手册我们也得以进一步了解tactical的意思。以下是Volume 1第一页的摘引:

Tactical Urbanism

Improving the livability of our towns andcities commonly starts at the street, block, or building scale. While largerscale efforts do have their place, incremental, small-scale improvements areincreasingly seen as a way to stage more substantial investments. …“tactical urbanism” is a deliberate approach to city makingthat features the following five characteristics:

l A deliberate, phased approach to instigate change

l Short-term commitment and realistic expectations.

...

If done well, such small scale changes maybe conceived as the first step in realizing lasting change. Thus, tacticalurbanism is most effective when used in conjunction with long term planningefforts.

从上面的摘引可以看出,此处的tactical译为“战术性的、策略性的”比“应变性”或“灵巧应变的”(后者见下文)更为适当。

关于urbanism的翻译,还可以进一步探讨,这里限于篇幅,就不开展了。

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Though there’s been tremendous media attention given to quick and cheap projects like San Francisco’s Pavement to Parks and New York’s “gutter cafes,” Lydon sees something bigger than fodder for the style section. “A lot of these things were not just fun and cool,” he says. “It was not just a bottom-up effort. It’s not D.I.Y. urbanism. It’s a continuum of ideas, techniques and tactics being employed at all different scales.”
尽管媒体对快捷而廉价的项目给与了极大的关注,如旧金山市的“街地园景工程”和纽约市的“游击咖啡馆”,但莱登所看到的不仅仅是那些知足时尚栏目的货色。他说,“许多这样的建筑不只是为了好玩和耍酷,不只是一个发自社会基层的尝试,也不是自助化(D. I. Y)城市主义,而是一个理念、技术和应变妙术的统一体,应用于所有各种不同规模建筑项目。”
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1.如果我们把最后一句做一下缩简就是“很多这样的建筑……是一个理念、技术和应变妙术的同一体,运用于所有各种不同规模建筑项目”,显然这是个病句。最后半句试改为:而是一连串相关系的理念、技术和应变妙术在不同规模上的应用。A continuum of 很难精确翻译又照料到中文的浏览感触,只能调和;at all different scales不宜解读为“不同规模建筑项目”,因所谓“规模”并不仅仅限于建筑的规模(小规模的建筑也可能在某些概念的利用上规模更大),而且有些tactical urbanism的项目依照个别意义上对“建筑”的定义并不见得是一个“建筑项目”,如gutter cafes重要是更改了场地的用处。

2. tactics译为“应变妙术”不如译为“策略”,下面一段中的tactics也同样建议译为“策略”。

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“We’re seeing a lot of these things emerge for three reasons,” Lydon continues. “One, the economy. People have to be more creative about getting things done. Two,金沙官方赌场, the Internet. Even four or five years ago we couldn’t share tactics and techniques via YouTube or Facebook. Something can happen randomly in Dallas and now we can hear about it right away. This is feeding into this idea of growth, of bi-coastal competition between New YorkandSan Francisco, say, about who does the cooler, better things. And three, demographic shifts. Urban neighborhoods are gentrifying, changing. They’re bringing in people looking to improve neighborhoods themselves. People are smart and engaged and working a 40-hour week. But they have enough spare time to get involved and this seems like a natural step.”
莱登继承指出,“诸多此类建筑的呈现有三个原因。首先是经济不景气,这就请求人们做事情比以前更具备创造性。其次是互联网的发展。就在四、五年前,我们还不能通过视频分享网站(YouTube)或者交友网站(Facebook)来分享妙术和技术,而现在,即使是远在达拉斯发生的任何一件事,我们都可以立刻知晓。这催生了发展的理念,也滋育了纽约和旧金山两岸竞争的理念,好比说,谁做得更好更酷,金沙官方赌场。再次是人口结构方面的变化。城市社区的富饶人口比例正在提高,社区也在不断发生变化,吸引着试图通过本身尽力去改良社区的人们来寓居。他们聪明能干,做事专一,每周工作40小时,但仍旧有足够的闲暇时间去介入,他们天然会这样去做。
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1.原文:Something can happen randomly in Dallas and now we can hear about it right away;译文:而当初,即便是远在达拉斯发生的任何一件事,我们都可以立即知晓。原文并没有说“任何一件事”,可译为:达拉斯随意发生一件什么事件,咱们都得以破刻知晓。

2.原文:This is feeding into this idea of growth, of bi-coastal competition between New York and San Francisco ……;译文:这催生了发展的理念,也滋育了纽约和旧金山两岸竞争的理念……。”首先,”of bi-coastal …”是对growth的补充说明,属同位语性质,所以“也滋育了”显然弄错了这里的逻辑关系。其次,“理念”在中文是个大词,用在这里并不非常合适。Idea此处更濒临于“概念”、“想法”的意思,但并不见得非译出不可。
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Lydon isn’t advocating an end to planning but encourages more short-term doing, experimenting, testing (which can be a far more satisfying alternative to waiting for projects to pass). While this may not directly change existing codes or zoning regulations, that’s O.K. because, as Lydon explains, the practices employed “shine a direct light on old ways of thinking, old policies that are in place.”
莱登并不是主张终止城市规划,而是勉励更多的短期操作、实验和尝试(这远比坐等项目取得同意更令人满意)。虽然这也许不能直接改变现行规范或城市分区法规,但是没有关联,因为就像莱登解释的那样,“新的做法把至今仍风行的陈腐的思维方式和过期的政策置于人们的审视之下”。


The Dallas group Build a Better Block - which quickly leapt from a tiny grass-roots collective to an active partner in city endeavors - has demonstrated that when you expose weaknesses, change happens. If their temporary interventions violate existing codes, Build a Better Block just paints a sign informing passers-by of that fact. They have altered regulations in this fashion. Sometimes - not always - bureaucracy gets out of the way and allows for real change to happen.
在达拉斯有个名为“打造幻想街区”(BBB)的集团,它从一个很小的草根组织一跃而成为城市建设的踊跃参加者。它告知了人们,当你去裸露弱点时,改变也就随之产生。参加临时性建筑的参与攻破了现行标准,BBB就会在建筑物上做出标示,让路人留神到这一事实。他们就是以这样的方法来改变法规的。有些时候政府的金科玉律会让路,容许真正的转变得以发生,只管并不老是如此。
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1.译文:莱登并不是主张终止城市规划。“终止”是结束一件进行中的事情,如“终止妊娠”, 而这里讲的城市规划是相对tactical urbanism的一种做法,“做法”应该是“废除” - 翻译的时候可以书面语化,比方“莱登并不是主意不要城市规划了”。

2.译文:当你去暴露弱点时。 因为这里念叨的是城市规划中暴露出来的一些问题,译为“毛病、缺点”甚至“问题”比“弱点”可能更适合。

3.译文:“加入临时性建筑的介入打破了现行规范”。宜改为:如果临时性介入冲撞了现行规范。“临时性建筑的介入”把“灵活车道改人行道、增长一条斑马线”这类的interventions消除在外,而事实上,Build The Block致力的恰是此类interventions:做一些修正既有规划的尝试,配以一些小的设施和标记上的改变,如栅栏,如简易铺设的人行道,如画斑马线;大多并不涉及“临时性建筑”(起码是传统意义上的建筑)。将”violate”译为“打破”是否反映了译者对codes(规范)的含义理解不到位?这里所谓的“规范”(codes)是存在法律或行政束缚力的关于规划或建筑的一些划定、尺度。

4.Paint a sign只能有两种理解:一种是“画个标志”,但更通常的理解是“画/写一块标示牌”。从informing passers-by of that fact这句话来看,更可能是后者。另外,Build the Block这个组织的良多名目(Interventions)例如增添一处斑马线并不波及修建物,所以“在建筑物上做出标示”不如“做出标示”。


5.译文:答应真正的改变得以发生。Allows for并没有强烈的“许可”的意味,而更像是“让什么成为可能”的意思,可改译为:让真正的改变得以发生。
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Testing things out can also help developers chart the right course for their projects. Says Lydon, “A developer can really learn what’s working in the neighborhood from a marketplace perspective - it could really inform or change their plans. Hopefully they can ingratiate themselves with the neighborhood and build community. There is real potential if the developers are really looking to do that.”
充足地加以检修也可以辅助城市开发者为项目做出正确的规划。莱登说:“开发者能够从市场运行的角度真正了解到什么才是在社区中可行的,这有助于筹划的构成,甚至是改变他们的方案。他们有愿望博切当地居民的好感并打造好社区。如果开发商们有意为之,潜力确实很大。”
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1.当hopefully润饰整句的时候,其意思是it is hoped that,整句话的大概意思就是“盼望(因此)他们能够赢得当地居民的好感并打造好社区”。

2.“有意为之”即使不是用词不当,起码也是轻易造成“歧义”。 其实Be looking to doing something是一种informing passer-by的说法,何必用如此正式的词语来对应呢?这里完全可以译为:如果开发商想做,潜力是很不错的。
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And they are. Brooklyn’s De Kalb Market, for example, was supposed to be in place for just three years, but became a neighborhood center where there hadn’t been much of one before. “People gravitated towards it,” says Lydon. “People like going there. You run the risk of people lamenting the loss of that. The developer would be smart to integrate things like the community garden - [giving residents an] opportunity to keep growing food on the site. The radio station could get a permanent space. The beer garden could be kept.”
开发商们确切想要这样做。例如,布鲁克林的笛卡尔市场,原规划三年后就要拆除的,后来却成了社区中央,而底本那里基本就没有相似像样的场合。据莱登说,“人们都被吸引过去了,大家爱好去那儿,如果把它拆除了,人们可能会埋怨。所以,如果开发商聪慧的话,他们就会融进社区的各种元素,如社区田园,使当地居民有机会持续在那里种植农作物。播送站就能有固定的地方,露天啤酒园也可以保留下来。
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1.“supposed to be in place for just three years”是说本来打算只能保存三年,而不是“三年后要拆除”,由于前者的时间出发点是从落成开端算的,而后者的时间起点则存在理解上的不合:是文章发表的时间呢还是项目开张的时间。

2.“广播站就能有固定的地方”的“就”字仿佛意味着这里是“果”,而前面有“因”- 即因为引入了某些元素,广播站就能有固定的地方。这其实并不准确。文中讲这话的人的意思是:聪明的开发商会将一些(社区)元素融入到他们的临时性项目来,例如社区农园,例如电台,例如啤酒园,这些项目因其对社区建设的作用,很可能得以保留,而不会被拆除。所以那句话大抵可以翻译或者说理解为:聪明的开发商会在他们的临时性项目中融入一些社区元素,如社区田园、 广播站还有露天啤酒园,这些都可能得以保留下来。Could这里更多的是“可能”的意思,而不是“可以”的意思。值得一提的是,这是某人的访谈实录,语言连贯性较差,需要在理解个中背景进而理解其中逻辑的前提下在译文中予以增强。
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San Francisco’s PROXY project is similar. Retail, restaurants and cultural spaces housed within an artful configuration of shipping containers, designed by Envelope Architecture and Design, were given a five-year temporary home on government-owned vacant lots in the city’s Hayes Valley neighborhood while developers opted to sit tight during the recession. Affordable housing is promised for the site; the developers will now be able to create it in a neighborhood that has become increasingly vibrant and pedestrian-friendly.
旧金山的PROXY项目与此类似。围护结构建筑设计公司(Envelope A+D)在旧金山海耶斯谷社区的一块政府所有的闲置土地上设计出了极具艺术品位的集装箱组合,作为零售店、餐饮和文化场所之用,使用期限是五年。这段时间正值经济萧条,开发商抉择了静观的策略。现在这些土地被许诺用来建设便宜房;在这样一个越来越充斥活气和便利步行的街区,开发商可能进行开发建设了。
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1.Artful是“奇妙”的意思,而不是“极具艺术品位”。

2.“使用期限是五年。这段时间正值经济萧条”。这句话会让读者认为Proxy这个项目已经进行了五年,而实际上这个项目的期限是自2011年到2016年。其实while所对应的并不是five-year而是given这个动作,也就是说,当时Envelope A+D拿到这个项目的时候正值经济危机,本来用于发展住房的地块没有发展商想动 (因此旧金山市政府才会让Envelope A+D在上面做一些临时建筑)。

3.Affordable housing在这里特指廉租房,参见:http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing/lawsandregs/laws/home/suba/sec215
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080904091603AAzWD8n

4.最后建议译为:这个地方计划用来建廉租房;现在发展商得以在这么一个越来越布满活力和方便步行的街区进行开发了。 Affordable housing is promised for the site这句话的一般现在时只是抒发一种当前状态,并不见得一定是“现在……被承诺”的,而把”现在“挪到后半句开头的利益是在于提高了句子的连贯性。另外,原译让读者认为“在这样一个越来越充满活力和方便步行的街区”是“开发商能够进行开发建设了”的先决前提。
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On an even larger scale, the major developer Forest City has been testing these ideas of trial and error in the 5M Project in downtown San Francisco. While waiting out the downturn, the folks behind5Mhave been beta-testing tenants and uses at their 5th & Mission location, which was (and still is) home to the San Francisco Chronicle and now also to organizations like TechShop, the co-working space HubSoma, the art gallery Intersection for the Arts, the tech company Square and a smattering of food carts to feed those hungry, hardworking tenants. A few years earlier, Forest City would have been more likely to throw up an office tower with some luxury condos on top and call it a day: according to a company vice president, Alexa Arena, the recession allowed Forest City to spend time “re-imagining places for our emerging economy and what kind of environment helps facilitate that.”
分量级城市开发商“森林城市”(Forest City)一直以更大的范围,应用在旧金山贸易核心区实行的5M项目作试探性尝试测试这些主意。在等候经济下行趋势好转的时代内,5M项目标谋划者始终在第五街和米申大巷的穿插地区做测验,以控制承租人的情形和屋宇的应用情况。这个地域曾经是(现在依然是)《旧金山记事报》总部所在地,现在还凑集了许多机构组织、像履行会员制的技巧工作坊Techshop、协同创作空间HubSoma、十字路口艺术会馆Intersection for the Arts、街心科技公司Square,以及少量食物售货车,为那些辛苦工作、需找处所填饱肚子的承租人供给餐饮。如果在多少年前,“森林公司”完整有可能会疾速盖起一座顶层带奢华公寓套间的写字楼,而后就高枕无忧了。公司的一位副总裁亚历克撒?阿里纳说,经济消退使“森林城市”公司有时间“为我们复苏中的经济重新设想建设空间,假想有助于增进经济发展的最佳环境”。
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1.“试探性尝试测试这些设法”应该不是好的译文。

2. 也许“承租人”改为“租户”会好些。

3.尽管throw up词典上的解释是to build or erect something in a hurry(McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs. ? 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.),这里却不宜僵硬地翻译为“快捷盖起”- Proxy的项目盖得也蛮快的。“随便弄一座……”可能更贴合throw up在此语境下的意思。 全句:换在几年前,森林公司完全可能(随便)弄一座……了事。

4.emerging economy译为“复苏中的经济”响应了之前提到的recession,好像再恰当不外了。但其实际的意思却是:“(旧金山)新兴的经济”。
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In “The Interventionist’s Toolkit,” the critic Mimi Zeiger wrote that the real success for D.I.Y. urbanist interventions won’t be based on any one project but will “happen when we can evaluate the movement based on outreach, economic impact, community empowerment, entrepreneurship, sustainability and design. We’re not quite there yet.”
评论家米米?蔡格在《干预主义者百宝箱》一文中写道,自助式城市建设干涉行动是否真正胜利,不会取决于任何一个独自的项目。“除非我们从以下方面加以评估,这些因素包括社区扩大、经济影响、社区赋权、首创精力、可连续性和设计理念。目前我们还有间隔。”
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1.WHO的官方文件中与Community Empowerment绝对应的中文是“社区营造”(http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/9/12-102301-ab/zh/index.html), 个人以为胜于“社区赋权”,后者让读者不知所云。 何况empowerment也不是中文的“赋权'这么简略。

2.将design译为“设计理念”而非“设计”的情理何在?
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She’s right. And one doesn’t have to search for examples of temporary projects that not only failed but did so catastrophically (see: Hurricane Katrina trailers, for example). A huge reason for tactical urbanism’s appeal relates to politics. As one practitioner put it, “We’re doing these things to combat the slowness of government.”
蔡格说得没错。失败的、甚至灾害性的临时建筑的例子俯拾皆是(比如卡特琳娜飓风之后修剪的活动房)。事实上,灵活应变地奉行城市主义的主张之所以有吸引力,其很大一部门原因与政治目的有关,正如一位践行者所说:“我们采用这些行为就是为了和政府的拖拉风格相对抗。”
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1. 有些读者可能会狭义地去懂得“灾害性”这个词语,提议译为“惨败”、“完败”。

2.还是前面提到的问题,projects不宜解读为“建筑”。还是译为'项目”的容纳性、可扩展性强一点。

3.“相抗衡”的译法并不恰当。这里的combat意指为打消拖沓作风所做的努力、奋斗,用法同combat inflation/racism,而抗衡的意思是“彼此抗衡,并驾齐驱”。可考虑译为:与政府的拖沓作风做抗争;或:凑合政府的拖沓作风。
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But all of this is more than a response to bureaucracy; at its best it’s a bold expression of unfettered thinking and creativity … and there’s certainly not enough of that going around these days. An embrace of the temporary and tactical may not be perfect, but it could be one of the strongest tools in the arsenal of city-building we’ve got.
然而,所有这所有并不仅是要对官僚政府作出反映;最佳的实际是可以体现自在思维和创意的大胆表白,……而现在显然还不够。寻求临时性、应变性,兴许并非万全之策,但是在我们城市建设的锦囊中,它仍不失为最有效的妙策之一。
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1.第一句后半句或可译为:其最高境界(或:其理想)是对不受约束的思维和发明性的勇敢表示……目前这方面并未几见。
2.“万全之策”着重于“稳当性”,用在这里不太合适。这里的perfect或许指的是尽如人意,能解决所有问题又没有什么缺陷(即包治百病的灵丹妙药)。

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